Dermatitis is a contact acute inflammatory lesion of skin tissue resulting from exposure to irritant factors of a chemical, physical or biological nature.
It belongs to the group of allergic dermatoses. Allergodermatosis, as is known, is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases, the leading importance in the development of which is attached to an allergic reaction of an immediate or delayed type. This group includes: allergic, atopic, toksidermiyu, eczema, urticaria.
Dermatitis, the symptoms of which can develop with biological, chemical or physical effects from various types of factors, respectively, can manifest itself in a specific form, determined from the characteristics of this effect, in this article we will look at what this problem is in general.
Depending on the cause and symptoms, there are:
- Seborrheic - a disease caused by a yeast-like fungus. However, this type of skin disease is not contagious. It has a chronic course, and is most often manifested on the skin of the face (forehead, nose, on the border of hair growth, eyebrows, ears).
- In contact dermatitis, substances penetrating the skin can cause inflammation due to an allergic or other reaction. It can occur when various biological, mechanical or other irritants come into contact with the skin. The severity of the manifestations of the disease depends on the time and strength of the stimulus.
- Allergic - a chronic disease that occurs gradually, within 1-2 weeks from the moment the body interacts with the allergen, when repeated contact with it occurs;
- Atopic - the most complex form of the disease, occurs in a chronic form and develops in individuals with a predisposition to atopy (an increase in the synthesis of immunoglobulin E in the body);
To understand how to treat dermatitis, it is necessary to determine its type, and after choosing what to treat it.
Common signs of dermatitis, among which should be noted:
- The appearance on the skin of such elements as erythema, papules, rash, flaking in the form of scales and more;
- Sometimes there is swelling, pain in the area of inflammation;
- Often the process is accompanied by painful itching and burning sensation;
- Sensitivity is affected in the affected areas, up to its complete absence;
- Characterized by seasonality process, when the exacerbation is observed in the cold period, and remission in summer;
Symptoms of dermatitisPhoto dermatitis on the face
In case of dermatitis, the symptoms in adults will directly depend on the severity and type of the disease.
- Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin of the scalp (however, there are other sites of the disease), the main symptom of which is the presence of yellow-colored crusts on the skin surface. The main cause of development is Malassezia furfur, which, multiplying on the surface of the skin, causes the appearance of symptoms of the disease.
- Symptoms of atopic dermatitis are characterized by the appearance of edema, erythema, vesicular eruptions that are able to open and leave weeping erosion. At attenuation of the inflammatory process, crusts and scales remain on the lesion sites. When sluggish allergic dermatitis may change the skin, characterized by its thickening, coarsening and skin pattern changes.
- Atopic dermatitis is considered a complex disease of an allergic nature. With this disease on the body has an impact on several factors. Predisposition to atopy (an increase in the synthesis of immunoglobulin) is inherited, and, as a rule, the disease develops at an early age. It is characterized by a strong redness of the skin and pronounced swelling. Subsequently, bubbles are formed, which, opening, leaving weeping erosion. After the inflammation passes, crusts and scales remain on the skin.
Simple dermatitis is acute or chronic. The acute form is characterized by bright inflammation, accompanied by itching, burning, pain, and sometimes - the formation of blisters and areas of necrosis, leaving scars. The chronic form is manifested by congestive edema, cyanosis, thickening of the skin, lichenification (peeling), cracks, increased keratinization, and sometimes atrophy of the skin.
Factors provoking the development of the disease
Stimuli that cause a mandatory inflammatory reaction in all people, without exception, are called obligate. They are the cause of simple contact dermatitis.
Awaken an allergic reaction can:
- synthetic substances;
- detergents, household chemicals;
- means of protecting plants from insects;
- cosmetics containing dyes and preservatives;
- paints and adhesives, based on polymer compounds;
- plant irritants.
Annoying agents that affect the skin and mucous membranes of not all, but only some of the persons in contact with them, called facultative, and lead to the development of allergic dermatitis, which is a consequence of increased sensitization of the body to allergens.
Below is a photo of dermatitis on the hands and body. The manifestation will depend on the form of the affliction.
When dermatitis is diagnosed in adults, treatment depends on its form, and is always selected individually.
First of all, treatment of all dermatitis should begin with the elimination of the irritating factor. External therapy depends on the severity of the process and the nature of the elements of the rash. If the stimulus is not determined, as is often the case with allergic and especially neuro-allergic dermatitis, the treatment will be only symptomatic, i.e. aimed at eliminating symptoms and maintaining the remission stage.
Treatment of dermatitis is conservative, consists of local and general therapy. Acute dermatitis, as a rule, should be treated only with the use of local remedies, and chronic forms require a combination of general and local therapy.
Topical treatment consists of treating the affected skin. Skin rashes are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs in the form of talkers, powders, ointments, solutions - depending on the form of the inflammatory element and its stage. Dermatitis on the face (seborrheic) is treated with antifungal ointments. Chronic forms are treated with the use of corticosteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, the sharp ones are treated with aniline dyes. Deep ulcerative lesions are treated in a hospital.
The general treatment is to take immunomodulatory, antihistamine, sedatives, depending on the cause of the disease. It is also necessary to eliminate all sources of chronic infection, such as teeth destroyed by a carious process, chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, etc.